Museum Blog

New Tool Refines Exoplanet Search

Posted 4/26/2016 12:04 AM by Kim Evans | Comments

New Tool for ExoPlanet Search -- large.jpg 

This is an artist's conception of an exoplanet courtesy of NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech. Credit: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech

Planet-hunting is an ongoing process that's resulting in the discovery of more and more planets orbiting distant stars. But as the hunters learn more about the variety among the tremendous number of predicted planets out there, it's important to refine their techniques. New work led by Carnegie's Jonathan Gagné, Caltech's Peter Gao, and Peter Plavchan from Missouri State University reports on a technological upgrade for one method of finding planets or confirming other planetary detections. The result is published by The Astrophysical Journal.

One of the most-popular and successful techniques for finding and confirming planets is called the radial velocity method. A planet is obviously influenced by the gravity of the star it orbits; that's what keeps it in orbit. This technique takes advantage of the fact that the planet's gravity also affects the star in return. As a result, astronomers are able to detect the tiny wobbles the planet induces as its gravity tugs on the star. Using this method, astronomers have detected hundreds of exoplanets.

For certain kinds of low-mass stars, however, there are limitations to the standard radial velocity method, which can cause false positives -- in other words, find something that looks like a planet, but isn't.

To address this issue, Gagné, Gao, and Plavchan decided to use the radial velocity technique, but they examined a different, longer wavelength of light.

"Switching from the visible spectrum to the near-infrared, the wobble effect caused by an orbiting planet will remain the same regardless of wavelength," Gagné explained. "But looking in the near-infrared will allow us to reject false positives caused by sunspots and other phenomena that will not look the same in near-infrared as they do in visible light,"

Radial velocity work in the near-infrared wavelengths has been conducted before, but it has trailed behind planet hunting in the visible spectrum, partially due to technical challenges. The research team was able to develop a better calibration tool to improve the overall technology for near-infrared radial velocity work, which should make it a better option going forward.

They examined 32 low-mass stars using this technological upgrade at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Their findings confirmed several known planets and binary systems, and also identified a few new planetary candidates.

"Our results indicate that this planet-hunting tool is precise and should be a part of the mix of approaches used by astronomers going forward," Gao said. "It's amazing to think that two decades ago we'd only just confirmed exoplanets actually existed and now we're able to refine and improve those methods for further discoveries."

Source: Carnegie Institution for Science


Subscribe to our RSS feed






2015 in Space2017 Solar Eclipse40 Eridani system60 Minutes in SpaceAltitudeanatomyAndromedaAntaresanthropologyarchaeologyArctic IceArtAsk a ScientistAsteroidAsteroid 2012 DA14Asteroid sample returnAstronomyAtmospherebeerBeerFWGBeetlesBig BangBinary StarBlack HolesBlood MoonBlue TongueBrown DwarfButterfliesCarnegie Institution for ScienceCassiniCatalystCelestial EventsCentaurus ACeresChandra X-Ray TelescopeChang’e 3 moon missionChang’e 4 moon missionCharonChina Space ProgramChinese Space ProgramChipmunksChristmasCitizen ScienceClimateClimate changecollaborationCollectionscollections moveColoradoCometComet 67PComet 67P/Churyumov–GerasimenkoComet Swift-TuttleConferenceConversations in Local Health ResearchCootiesCosmic InflationCrowdsourcingCuriosityCuriosity RoverCygnusCygnus SpacecraftDark EnergyDark MatterDatabaseDawnDawn missionDawn SpaecraftDDIGDenverdiscoveryDiscovery MissionsdonationDream ChaserDung BeetlesDwarf PlanetEagle NebulaEarthEarth and MoonEarth from SpaceEarth Observation SatellitesEclipse ViewingEducation and Collections Facilityeducation collectionsEinsteinEl NiñoEnceladusentomologyESAEuclid SpacecraftEuropaEuropean Space AgencyEvolutionExoMarsExoMars SpacecraftExoplanetExoplanet Search TechniquesExoplanetsExtinctionextremophilefieldfieldworkFirst Earthrisefolk artfoodGAIA MissionGalaxiesGalaxyGalaxy ClustersGanymedegem carvingGeneticsGRACE SpacecraftGravitational WavesGravity Recovery and Climate ExperimentGreenhouse GasesHabitable ZonehealthHeartHolidayHolidayshorticultural pestHot JupitersHubbleHubble Space TelescopehumanHuman SpaceflightHydrainsect collectioninsectsInsightInternational Space StationISSISS SightingsJason-2 (Spacecraft)JPLJWSTKeplerKepler Missionknow healthKonovalenkoKuiper Belt ObjectLaser CommunicationsLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLepidoperaLibraryLiceLight PollutionLinear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA)literatureLockheed Martin DenverLROLunar EclipseLunar Reconnaissance OrbiterMadagascarMarathon ValleyMars 2020Mars ExplorationMars OrbiterMars Reconnaissance OrbiterMars RoverMars RoversMars Science LabMars Science LaboratoryMars spacecraftMars WaterMAVENMemoryMesa VerdeMeteor ShowersMeteorsMilky WayMongoliaMoon Rise/SetMothsMount SharpMROMSLMurray ButtesNASANASA-JPLNASA-TVNeptuneNeuroscienceNeutron StarNew HorizonsNew Horizons spacecraftNight SkynomenclatureNSFNutritionOcean CurrentsOcean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM)Opportunity RoverOrbital SciencesOriginsOrionOrion spacecraftOSIRIS-RExPaleo DietpaleontologyparasitesPerseidsPersied Meteor ShowerPhilaePhobosPhotographyPlankPlutopoisonPolar bearsProgresspublishingPulsarQuasarRADRadio AstronomyRegolith ExplorerRelativityResource IdentificationRosettaRussiasamplesSaturnSaturn MoonsSaturn Ringsschoolscience on tapScientific visitorSecurityShrewsSierra NevadaSky calendarSky watchSmellSnowmassSolar SystemSoyuzSpace CommunicationsSpace ProbesSpace Stories of 2015Space TelescopesSpaceXspecimensSpectral InterpretationspidersSpitzer Space TelescopeStar ClusterStar TrekstarsSTEMStickney craterSunSuomi National Polar-orbiting PartnershipSuper EarthSuper MoonSupernovaTasteTeen Science Scholarsthe MoonTravelturtleUniverseUtopia PlanitiaVenusVery Large ArrayVestaVirgin GalacticVLAvolunteeringVulcanWebb Space TelescopeWeddingwormXMM-NewtonX-ray Multi-Mirror Missionzoology
^ Back to Top
comments powered by Disqus